Save my selection. Eze, Ngozi M. Alcohol consumption among secondary school students is a major public health issue worldwide; however, the extent of consumption among secondary school students and their understanding of its effects on human health remain relatively unknown in many Nigerian States.
This study aimed to determine the extent of alcohol consumption and of the awareness of its negative effects on human health among secondary school students. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using means and t test.
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The results showed that male secondary school students moderately consumed beer The findings also indicated rare consumption of distilled spirits among both male and female students in the investigated area, whereas wine, liquor, local spirits, and palm wine were consumed moderately, regardless of gender. Finally, male and female secondary school students differed significantly in their awareness of the negative effects of alcohol consumption on health.
There is a need to intensify efforts to further curtail the extent of alcohol consumption and increase awareness of the negative effects of alcohol use on human health among secondary school students. All the authors were involved in the data collection. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Alcohol consumption is a serious public health challenge worldwide, including in Nigeria.
Although the level of alcohol consumption differs widely around the world, the burden of disease and death remains significant in most regions, with Europe and America having the highest alcohol attributable fractions at 6. According to Bada and Adebiyi,  it is not rare for Nigerian secondary school students to consume alcoholic drinks; this consumption could be due to their curiosity as adolescents, an irresistible urge, emotional disturbances such as anxiety, the subculture, and the influence of advertisements.
For instance, Lasebikan and Ola  found that the prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was A recent study by Alex-Hart et al  showed that the prevalence of current alcohol consumption among a sample of Nigerian secondary school students was Alcohol consumption negatively affects human health across the lifespan. Previous studies show that alcohol consumption is associated with a burden of diseases such as cancer,  pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, alcohol use disorder, malignancies, psychiatric morbidity, and injury.
The objective of the present study was therefore to investigate the level of alcohol consumption and knowledge of its negative effects on health among secondary school students in Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to determine the responses of secondary school students regarding the extent of their alcohol consumption and the extent to which students are aware of the negative health effects of alcohol consumption.
Furthermore, parents of the selected participants signed an informed consent form to indicate their approval. School principals of the selected students provided informed consent and conveyed their approval to the researchers in writing. Participants were informed that they were free to participate or to decline participation in the study.
This study was conducted in public secondary schools in Ebonyi and Enugu States, Nigeria. The participants comprised senior secondary school students who were purposively selected to participate in the study. Figure 1 shows the results of the sample size determination. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the participants.
Thus, the assumptions underlying the use of a priori analysis for sample size calculations were considered appropriate for the current study. All the school principals visited gave their informed consent, and their schools were therefore qualified for sampling. Through multistage sampling technique, the researchers selected the current study sample. First, the simple random sampling technique balloting without replacement was used to select only 31 school secondary schools from each State, making a total of 62 secondary schools surveyed. This technique was used in order to give each of the secondary schools the opportunity of being selected and thus eliminate selection bias.
Furthermore, 21 senior students from each of the selected schools in the 2 States were selected to participate in the study through stratified random sampling. Both the schools and their students were selected on the basis of certain inclusion criteria set by the researchers. A participant must also be at least 16 years of age and above. Those who did not meet these criteria were excluded from the current study. Section B has 2 parts; part one contains 7 items that evaluate the extent to which students consume alcohol with regard to a variety of alcoholic drinks i. To overcome the challenges of participant attrition and nonretrieval of instruments, which are common to many cross-sectional surveys, the questionnaires were distributed and retrieved from each respondent on the spot with the help of 4 research assistants.
Respondents met with the researchers and assistants in school halls to complete the questionnaire during long break periods in school.
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The respondents were guided appropriately and given sufficient time 15—20 minutes to avoid incomplete responses. Respondents were encouraged to call the attention of any of the researchers or assistants if they need additional clarification on any item or how to complete the questionnaire. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using means, percentage, and t test.
Item scores were included as the dependent variables and sex as the independent variables. The t test was used to examine the differences between male and female students at a 0. To perform the t tests, item scores were treated as test variables, whereas sex was used as the grouping variable. During coding, the numerical value of 1 was used as the label for male students , whereas the value of 2 was applied for female students. Before performing the t tests, the normality of the distribution of the data was assessed using Shapiro—Wilks normality test. A database created from Microsoft Excel was used for data management, which involved compiling, organizing, defining, and managing data.
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There were no missing data. Male secondary school students These results imply that secondary school students in the study area consumed different types of alcoholic beverages. This finding means that male and female students in the investigated area consumed these alcoholic drinks unequally due to gender. Male secondary school students moderately consumed beer and local cocktails, whereas their female counterparts were rare consumers of these 2 alcoholic drinks see Table 2.
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