Inflammation has emerged as a potentially important factor - and thus putative pharmacological target - in the pathology of bipolar disorders. However to date no systematic evaluations of the efficacy of add on anti-inflammatory treatment However to date no systematic evaluations of the efficacy of add on anti-inflammatory treatment for the depressive and manic episodes have been carried out.
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Anti-manic effects were evaluated in two trials, one of adjunctive n-acetyl cysteine NAC , one of omega-3 fatty acids O3FA , and significant improvements only emerged for NAC. Celecoxib had a rapid but short-lived antidepressant effect. Despite limited effects of O3FA on symptoms, imaging data demonstrated alterations in neuronal functioning that might have longer-term therapeutic effects.
Evidence was strongest for adjunctive NAC in bipolar depression though conclusions are limited by small sample sizes. Definitive conclusions are limited by the paucity of data, small study sizes, and the variability in methodology used. Current evidence for aspirin or celecoxib is insufficient though further investigation of the potential of celecoxib in early illness onset is warranted.
Variable evidence exists for add-on O3FA though an indication of short-term treatment effects on membrane fluidity and neuronal activity suggest longer follow-up assessment is needed.
Careful consideration of lithium toxicity in the elderly and renal impaired is essential. The present study aimed to explore the coping resources and mental health of women who have fled Syria to a neighboring European country. To that end, we examined the roles of sociodemographic factors, situational factors, and personal To that end, we examined the roles of sociodemographic factors, situational factors, and personal and community sense of coherence SOC and ComSOC, respectively in mental-health outcomes.
One hundred and eleven refugee women aged filled out self-reported questionnaires during August in a refugee camp in Greece. The questionnaires asked the participants for demographic information i.
The results show that time spent in the camp, appraisal of danger, SOC, and ComSOC all play significant roles in predicting the variance of various mental-health outcomes. SOC was also found to mediate the relationships between time spent in the camp and outcome variables, as well as the relationships between the appraisal of danger and the outcome variables.
This indicates that SOC is crucial for good adaptation. These results will be discussed in light of the salutogenic theory. Dealing with depression - Veterans and First-Timers. Depression does not develop overnight. Instead, it is a sneaky disease that takes months to develop. Some will be able to recognize the initial symptoms and avoid becoming depressed. Others will be caught much more by surprise. Most studies use a dose—response approach to examine the impact of IPV on mental health, but they often fail to explain Results indicate that IPV stressfulness appraisals are associated with depressive symptoms over and above frequency and severity of IPV.
Trauma symptoms among infants exposed to intimate partner violence. This research aims to study the psychological effects of the news coverage of violent crimes on television viewers in Pakistan.
It seeks to investigate how such coverage is likely to influence the mental health of the audience. Total Total news viewers from diverse age, gender and professional backgrounds are sampled following the non-probability convenience and voluntary sampling techniques. The sampled participants are investigated over a period of six months i. The findings of the study indicate that there is significant positive correlation between the frequency and duration of mediated exposure to real-life violence and mental distress which is measured in terms of anxiety, depression and emotional instability.
Dopaminergic activity in depressed smokers: a positron emission tomography study. Tobacco dependence is highly prevalent in depressed patients.
We assessed changes in [ 11 C]-raclopride binding potential BP using positron emission tomography PET before and after the oral administration of d-amphetamine in healthy We assessed changes in [ 11 C]-raclopride binding potential BP using positron emission tomography PET before and after the oral administration of d-amphetamine in healthy controls and unmedicated patients with current depression with and without current tobacco dependence.
Over a single study day 2 [ 11 C]-raclopride positron emission tomography scans were taken in 38 subjects: at baseline and 2 h following oral d-amphetamine 30 mg. Twenty controls 9 smokers, 11 nonsmokers and 18 subjects with current major depressive episode 8 smokers, 10 non-smokers. Striatal [ 11 C]-raclopride binding potential was measured before and after d-amphetamine administration. This may be due to a floor effect because of the low BP at baseline.
Depressed subjects reported significant increase of positive mood after d-amphetamine administration compared with controls depressed smokers vs. Tobacco dependence appears to decrease d-amphetamine-induced changes in [ 11 C]-raclopride binding potential as measured by positron emission tomography. Comorbid major depression and tobacco dependence exacerbates this effect, suggesting an altered dopamine system in comorbid patients. Dopaminergic activity in depressed smokers: A positron emission tomography study.
Introduction to Depression | Psych Central
Neurobiological effects of exercise on Major Depressive Disorder: A systematic review. Exercise displays promise as an efficacious treatment for people with depression. However, no systematic review has evaluated the neurobiological effects of exercise among people with major depressive disorder MDD.
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The aim of this The aim of this article was to systematically review the acute and chronic biological responses to exercise in people with MDD. From the searches, twenty studies were included within the review, representing people with MDD. The results demonstrate that a single bout of exercise increases atrial natriuretic peptide ANP , brain natriuretic peptide BNP , copepetin and growth hormone among people with MDD.
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However, there is limited evidence that exercise promotes adaptations on neurogenesis, inflammation biomarkers and brain structure. Nevertheless, the paucity of studies and limitations presented within, precludes a more definitive conclusion of the underlying neurobiological explanation for the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with MDD.
Further trials should utilize appropriate assessments of neurobiological markers in order to build upon the results of our review and further clarify the potential mechanisms associated with the antidepressant effects of exercise. The adolescents as well as their parents if the young person was below the age of 18 years received written information about the study.
Thirteen YP were approached for participation, and six of them and where necessary, their legal guardian gave their written informed consent to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were youth aged 14—19 years entering psychotherapy after undergoing a maximum of two sessions with a therapist, currently suffering from a depressive disorder, and having sufficient command of the German language.
An overview of Indian research in depression
Exclusion criteria were pathology or a cognitive impairment too severe to participate, as rated by therapist or interviewer appraisal. The therapist made a clinical judgment about whether it was appropriate to invite the young person to take part in the study. Possible reasons for not inviting the YP were, for example, because they were in a state of crisis or because their mental health felt too precarious at this point to ask them to participate in research interviews. Prior treatment was not an exclusion criterion, because we were interested in the experiences of adolescents seeking help in a naturalistic context.
Six YP entering psychotherapy participated in this study. They were between 15 and 19 years old, and five of them were female. They all met the ICD diagnostic criteria for mild to moderate depressive episodes. Each showed comorbid symptoms of another disorder as well. Four fulfilled criteria for a comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and the other two for a comorbid anxiety disorder. They all shared experiences of difficult life situations ranging from loss of close ones, parental divorce, parental psychiatric disorders, to sexual or physical abuse.
Furthermore, the majority of the YP had been suffering from depression for a couple of years already before entering psychotherapy. The interviews were carried out by the first author K. The interview deliberately encourages the YP to describe their experiences in their own words. An experienced qualitative researcher Silvia Krumm gave feedback on the first interview to ensure the quality of the in-depth nature of the interviews. The interviews aimed to elicit an in-depth narrative of the subjective experience of each participant.
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The interviews were carried out at the Medical School Hamburg. At the start of the interview, participants were asked again for their consent to audiotape and were reminded that they had the right to withdraw from the interview at any time and that questions did not have to be answered. The complete interview took about 1.
Depression Research Papers
The purpose of the second interview was to provide a diagnostic assessment and confirm the presence of a depressive disorder; but this data were not used in the qualitative analysis reported below. In addition, use of medication and suicidal ideation were assessed. The interviews were professionally transcribed verbatim, omitting any potentially identifying data such as names, professions, or places.
Participants were able to choose a pseudonym. In cases where they did not choose their own pseudonym, participants were assigned a pseudonym. IPA is an appropriate approach when the aim is to explore how people make sense of specific experiences; it allows for a focus on the lived experiences of the individual. Furthermore, IPA is an inductive approach, which allows for topics to emerge from the data that were not anticipated by the researchers.
First, following an idiographic approach, the analysts begin by looking in detail at the transcript of one interview before moving to the others.